04 Nov

types of spinning wheels

Types of spinning wheels - by La Visch Designs

I find spinning to be a very relaxing pastime. Do you think Queen Victoria (pictured below), also spun for relaxation? In my first post on the anatomy of spinning wheels, I told you about the various parts most spinning wheels have in common. Now that you know something about the different parts, I can also tell you about the various types of spinning wheels out there.

Mind you, this is not an exhaustive list, but rather a very rough classification based on the appearance of most common western spinning wheels. Wheels like the Indian Charkha (used to spin cotton) I left out of this overview.

Types of spinning wheels

Saxony wheel

Saxon spinning wheels are characterized by a horizontally oriented table with the wheel on one side and the spin head with the flyer on the other side. The table itself usually is placed a bit on an angle. The spinning wheel shown below is a typical example.

Types of spinning wheels

This particular wheel is indeed a very special one. Noortje (yes I have given my spinning wheel a name, a wheel with character deserves a name!) is in fact handmade by the grandfather of an acquaintance: Wim Vogel. He was a carpenter and made in the 70’s two spinning wheels in his spare time, based on plans by the Norske Husflidsforening. Noortje is one of those two wheels.

Castle wheel

This type of wheel has a vertical structure with first the table top, then the wheel and above this the flyer assembly. Because of this construction, this type of spinning wheel requires relatively little space. This was the feature that ensured that these spinning wheels were very popular with barge captain’s wives. On ships, room happens to be a scarce commodity. This is also the reason that this type of spinning wheel is in the Netherlands, also known as “schippertje.” This translates roughly to “little skipper”. Some modern castle type wheels can even be folded for compact storage or travel.

Types of spinning wheels

My schippertje picture here is Dutch-made: It was made by Jan Lobs from Oostvoorne. Lobs had in the 70’s a spinning wheel atelier where these wheels with their distinctive design were made. Being very robust, I encounter these wheels regularly on the Dutch version of Craigs List (Markplaats). I myself have two wheels of this model.

Norwegian spinning wheel

This type of wheel is very similar to the Saxony spinning wheels. Norwegian spinning wheels have usually also a big wheel, 3 to 4 legs in combination with a horizontal build-up with the flyer next to the wheel. The table is however entirely horizontally and is sometimes combined with a smaller upper table in which the flyer assembly can be found.

Types of spinning wheels

Modern spinning wheels

Besides the already mentioned types of spinning wheels, there are of course also the modern wheels. In these wheels, modern technology is combined with the traditional principles of spinning. Think for instance of foldable wheels to make them easier to carry and travel with them. Wheels fitted with modern (ball) bearings so they make for light treadling and hardly any noise. Wheels that automatically change the position of where the thread is wound on the bobbin. This is very handy because then you don’t need to stop to pass the thread through the next flight hook.

These wheels often have a very traditional look. Because of it, they usually fall in one of the aforementioned categories of the various types of spinning wheels. There are also spinning wheels with a totally different appearance. Spinning wheels made of plastic, or for example electrically powered wheels for those individuals who have less use of their legs. An overview of variations can be found in the picture below.

Types of spinning wheels

Modern spinning wheels come in so many variations, that there really is no common appearance. And that really makes it so much fun!

In a next post, I will consider the various working principles on which most spinning wheels operate. Stay tuned!

07 Oct

the anatomy of a spinning wheel

 

Anatomy of a spinning wheel

Spinning wheels, who doesn’t know them? Even if it is just from fairy tales like Sleeping Beauty and Rumpelstiltskin. Because of the fairy tales spinning wheels are also the best-known method to make your own yarn for knitting, crochet or weaving. Spinning wheels come in lots of different shapes, sizes and also have many different components. With this post, I want to make you a bit more familiar with the latter.

The anatomy of a spinning wheel

Due to the large differences between wheels, the various parts are sometimes shaped differently or located in a slightly different spot. The following components can, however, be found in most spinning wheels, in one form or the other. Much of the information on spinning and spinning wheels online, is in English. Being Dutch I found that a lot of information is not available in my own language. Therefore I have I included both Dutch and English in the notes below about the various parts and components.

Anatomy of a spinning wheel

 

A. Wheel (aandrijfwiel): The wheel that spins around and doing so puts the other parts of the spinning wheel in motion.
B. Maidens (spilsteunen): The vertical supports that hold the flyer and bobbin.
C. Mother of all (spinhoofd): The horizontal bar on which the maidens, flyer, bobbin and tension screw are attached.
D. Treadle (trapper/voetpedaal): The treadle that lets you bring the drive wheel in motion. Some spinning wheels have one treadle (single treadle wheels), other versions have two to be used with both feet (double treadle).
E. Footman (aandrijfstok): The part that connects the treadle to the drive wheel, causing it to rotate when treadling.
F. Table (tafel): This is the central component of a spinning wheel, where everything is built upon which gives a wheel its structure.
G. Plying rack (twijnrek): Raised pins that are used to place bobbins filled with spun singles on, in order to ply them together in a plied yarn. They can of course also be used to store additional bobbins when not plying.

Anatomy of a spinning wheel

 

H. Flyer (vlucht): U-shaped component with hooks at one or both sides of the arm of the U. The hooks are used to divide the yarn neatly over the bobbin. The flyer is rotated by the drive belt, causing rotation (twist) to insert into the wool. The fibers themselves are relatively weak but combined in this manner, they are much stronger.
I. Bobbin (spoel/klos): The bobbin is placed on the flyer spindle and rotates, along with the flyer. Here, the yarn is wound up, when sufficient twist has entered the wool.
J. Whorl (spilschijf): A pulley which is placed on the spindle, is connected with the flyer, and is driven by the drive belt. The different dimensions of the grooves in the whorl determine how fast the wheel is spinning and have an important impact on the ratio of the spinning wheel. With ratio is meant how many times the flyer goes around with one turn of the wheel. The higher the number, the faster the wheel spins.
K. Drive belt (aandrijfsnaar): A cord placed around the wheel and whorl, which thus transfers the rotation of the wheel onto the other parts of the wheel. Modern spinning wheels typically have a flexible plastic drive belt, I use hemp packaging twine on mine.
L. Tension screw (stelschroef): This part is used to put tension on the drive belt by moving the Mother of All.
M. Orifice (spingat): The opening at the end of the flyer spindle, where the wool goes through before it is wound through the flyer hooks onto the bobbin.

In this post, I’ll tell you about the various types of spinning wheels.